United States Renewable Energy Landscape


United States Renewable Energy Landscape

A Journey Through Time: Tracing the History of Renewable Energy in the United States

The tale of renewable energy in the United States is a long and winding one, marked by periods of innovation, decline, and resurgence. 

Let's take a trip down memory lane to explore this dynamic story:

Early Beginnings (Before 1800s):

  • Wood Power: For millennia, wood remained the primary source of energy for heating, cooking, and lighting. Its abundance and ease of access made it the go-to fuel for early Americans.
  • Water Power: Harnessing the power of flowing water for grinding grain and powering small mills started appearing as early as the 17th century.

The Rise of Hydropower (1800s - Early 1900s):

  • Industrial Revolution: The 19th century saw a surge in industrialization, demanding greater energy needs. Hydropower emerged as a powerful solution, with the first commercial hydroelectric plant opening in Appleton, Wisconsin, in 1882.
  • Dam Construction Boom: Large-scale dam projects like Hoover Dam in the 1930s further cemented hydropower's dominance as the leading renewable energy source.

Shifting Landscapes (Early 1900s - Mid 20th Century):

  • Fossil Fuel Era: Discovery of vast oil and natural gas reserves, coupled with technological advancements, led to a shift towards these cheaper and readily available fossil fuels. Renewable energy gradually receded into the background.
  • Wood's Resurgence: World War I and II, with their constraints on fossil fuels, saw a temporary return to wood as a heating source.

Environmental Awakening (Mid 20th Century - Present):

  • Renewed Interest: Growing concerns about environmental damage and limited fossil fuel resources sparked a renewed interest in renewable energy sources in the 1970s.
  • Policy Push: The oil crisis of the 1970s further propelled policy changes encouraging renewable energy development. The Carter administration invested in solar and wind research, laying the groundwork for future advancements.
  • Tech Advancements: Technological innovations, particularly in solar panels and wind turbines, drastically reduced their costs, making them more competitive with fossil fuels.
  • Continued Growth: Today, renewable energy sources like solar, wind, and geothermal are witnessing significant growth, driven by supportive policies, falling costs, and public demand for clean energy.

Key Milestones:

  • 1978: The Public Utility Regulatory Policies Act (PURPA) encourages renewable energy development by requiring utilities to buy surplus electricity from small producers.
  • 1992: The Energy Policy Act of 1992 incentivizes renewable energy projects with tax credits and grants.
  • 2005: The Renewable Portfolio Standards (RPS) require states to increase their reliance on renewable energy sources.
  • 2011: Renewable energy surpasses nuclear power for the first time in the United States.
  • 2022: The Inflation Reduction Act provides substantial funding for renewable energy development, transmission, and storage.

Looking Ahead:

The future of renewable energy in the United States is bright. With continued investment, technological advancements, and supportive policies, renewable sources are poised to play an increasingly crucial role in meeting the nation's energy needs while creating a cleaner and more sustainable future.

United States Renewable Energy Landscape

Renewable Energy Consumption in the United States

Here's a breakdown of renewable energy consumption in the US, incorporating insights from recent data and addressing potential confusion:


  • In 2022, renewable energy accounted for 13.18 quadrillion British thermal units (Btu) of total energy consumption, or 13% of the national energy use.
  • This figure includes renewable sources like hydropower, wind, solar, geothermal, biomass, and biofuels.
  • Notably, hydropower makes up the largest share of renewable consumption, contributing approximately 37% of the total.
  • However, solar and wind are experiencing the fastest growth, with their combined contribution reaching 33% in 2022.

Consumption vs. Production:

  • It's crucial to differentiate between consumption and production. While 13% represents consumption, renewable energy production in the US reached 13.40 quads, or 13% of total production, in 2022.

Specific Sources:

Here's a breakdown of specific renewable energy sources' consumption based on 2022 data:

  • Hydropower: 4.90 quads (37%)
  • Biomass: 3.02 quads (23%)
  • Wind: 1.62 quads (12%)
  • Solar: 1.43 quads (11%)
  • Biofuels: 1.34 quads (10%)
  • Geothermal: 0.87 quads (7%)

Growth and Future Outlook:

  • Renewable energy consumption has been steadily increasing in the US, with a significant jump from 9.9% in 2021 to 13% in 2022.
  • Factors like the Inflation Reduction Act of 2022 and continued technological advancements are expected to accelerate this growth in the coming years.
  • Experts predict that renewable energy consumption could reach 28% of total energy use by 2050.

United States Renewable Energy Landscape

Breakdown Data of Renewable Energy in the United States

Production (2022):

SourceEnergy Production (Trillion Btu)Percentage of Total Renewable Production
Total Renewables17.4313.4%

Consumption (2022):

SourceEnergy Consumption (Trillion Btu)Percentage of Total Renewable Consumption
Biomass (Biofuels & Electricity)4.4232.8%
Total Renewables19.5115.0%

Additional Breakdown:

  • Wind: Texas, Oklahoma, and Iowa are the top three states for wind energy production.
  • Solar: California, Texas, and Florida are the top three states for solar energy production.
  • Biomass: Biofuels (mainly for transportation) account for roughly half of biomass consumption, while the other half comes from biomass electricity generation.
  • Hydropower: The majority of hydropower production comes from large dams, especially in the West and Pacific Northwest.


United States Renewable Energy Landscape

Hydropower Statistics in the United States


  • 2022: Hydropower accounted for 6.2% of total U.S. utility-scale electricity generation and 28.7% of total utility-scale renewable electricity generation.
  • Energy generation:
    • 262 billion kilowatthours (kWh) in 2022 (13.4% of renewable production, 61.3% of hydro production)
    • Highest recorded annual generation was in 2011 (812 billion kWh)
  • Capacity:
    • 102 gigawatts (GW) as of 2022, primarily from large dams.
    • Largest facility: Grand Coulee Dam (Washington) with 6,765 MW capacity.


  • 2022: Consumed 7.85 trillion Btu (equivalent to 230 TWh).
  • Source:
    • Conventional Hydropower: 99.8%
    • Pumped Storage Hydropower: 0.2%


  • Top 5 Hydropower-Producing States:
    • Washington
    • California
    • Oregon
    • Tennessee
    • Alabama
  • Regional Breakdown:
    • West: 62% of national capacity
    • Southeast: 22%
    • Northeast: 9%
    • Midwest: 7%

Environmental Impact:

  • Positive: Clean energy source, low greenhouse gas emissions.
  • Negative: Dams can harm ecosystems and fisheries, displace communities.

Additional Notes:

  • Hydropower development has slowed down in recent years due to environmental concerns and competition from other renewable sources.
  • Pumped storage hydropower plays a critical role in grid management by storing and releasing energy when needed.
  • The future of hydropower in the US is uncertain, but it is likely to remain an important source of clean energy.

United States Renewable Energy Landscape

Wind Energy Statistics in the United States

Here's a summary of some key statistics on wind energy in the US, as of 2023/early 2024:


  • Electricity: In 2022, wind power generated 434.8 terawatt hours of electricity, making it the main source of renewable energy in the US, surpassing hydropower. (Source: Statista)
  • Growth: Since 2000, wind electricity generation has increased significantly, from 6 billion kWh to 380 billion kWh in 2021. In 2022, it accounted for 10.2% of total US utility-scale electricity generation. (Source: EIA)

Capacity and Infrastructure:

  • Installed capacity: As of 2023, the US has a total wind power capacity of 146 gigawatts (GW), enough to power 46 million American homes. This makes it the fourth-largest source of electricity generation capacity in the country. (Source: Clean Power Alliance)
  • Turbines: Over 70,000 wind turbines are currently operating across all 50 states. (Source: Clean Power Alliance)

Economic Impact:

  • Jobs: In 2020, the wind industry supported over 120,000 jobs in the US. (Source: Clean Power Alliance)
  • Investments: Renewable energy investments, including wind, rose to $105 billion in 2021, a 7% increase from the previous year. (Source: Statista)
  • Environmental benefits: Wind energy avoided 336 million metric tons of CO2 emissions in 2022. (Source: Clean Power Alliance)
United States Renewable Energy Landscape

Solar Energy Statistics in the United States

Here's a summary of some key statistics on solar energy in the US, as of 2023/early 2024:


  • Electricity: In 2022, solar power generated 145.6 terawatt hours of electricity, representing 3.4% of the total and 15.9% of renewable energy production. (Source: Statista, EcoWatch)
  • Growth: Solar electricity generation has seen rapid growth, experiencing an average annual increase of 24% in the last decade. (Source: Statista)

Capacity and Infrastructure:

  • Installed capacity: As of 2022, the US has a total solar power capacity of 110 gigawatts (GW), enough to power 37 million American homes. (Source: Statista)
  • Systems: Over 3 million solar photovoltaic (PV) systems are installed across the US, with residential installations growing at a record pace in 2022. (Source: SEIA)

Economic Impact:

  • Jobs: The solar industry employed over 346,000 workers in 2022, and the workforce grew by 3.7% from the previous year. (Source: EcoWatch)