Global Future Outlook of Green Hydrogen

 Green Hydrogen

How is Green Hydrogen Produced

Green hydrogen is produced through a process called electrolysis, where water (H2O) is split into hydrogen (H2) and oxygen (O2) molecules using electricity. 

In the case of green hydrogen, this electricity is sourced from renewable energy, such as wind, solar, or hydropower. During electrolysis, water is typically fed into an electrolyzer, where an electrical current passes through it. This electrical current causes the water molecules to break apart, releasing hydrogen gas at the cathode and oxygen gas at the anode. 

Since the electricity comes from renewable sources, green hydrogen production generates no carbon emissions, making it a clean and sustainable energy carrier with the potential to transform various sectors and significantly reduce greenhouse gas emissions.

Green hydrogen is produced through a process called electrolysis, which involves splitting water (H2O) into its constituent elements, hydrogen (H2) and oxygen (O2). 

Here's how green hydrogen is typically produced:


Electrolysis is the core process for green hydrogen production. It involves passing an electric current through water, which is usually purified and demineralized. This electric current causes a chemical reaction that separates water into hydrogen and oxygen gases.


An electrolyzer is the equipment used for this process. It consists of two electrodes, typically made of materials like platinum or iridium, immersed in water. When an electric current flows between these electrodes, it triggers the following reactions:

   - At the cathode (negative electrode): 2H₂O + 2e⁻ → H₂(g) + 2OH⁻

   - At the anode (positive electrode): 4OH⁻ → 2H₂O + O₂(g) + 4e⁻

   The hydrogen gas (H2) is collected at the cathode, while oxygen gas (O2) is produced at the anode.

Renewable Energy Source

To ensure that the hydrogen production process is "green" and environmentally friendly, the electricity used in the electrolysis process should come from renewable sources like wind, solar, or hydropower. This distinguishes green hydrogen from hydrogen produced using fossil fuels, which releases carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions.

Purity and Compression

The hydrogen gas produced in this manner can be further purified and compressed to meet specific quality and storage requirements. Depending on its intended use, it may need to meet certain purity standards.

Green hydrogen has the advantage of being a clean and sustainable energy carrier because it generates no greenhouse gas emissions during production. It has numerous applications, including serving as an energy storage medium, powering fuel cells for transportation, and decarbonizing various industrial processes. However, it's important to note that the widespread adoption of green hydrogen faces challenges related to cost, infrastructure development, and efficiency improvements.

Green Hydrogen

Type of Green Hydrogen

Green hydrogen is primarily categorized based on its production method, which determines its environmental impact and carbon footprint. 

The main types of green hydrogen are:

Renewable or Solar Hydrogen

This type of green hydrogen is produced through the electrolysis of water using electricity generated from solar photovoltaic (PV) panels. Solar hydrogen relies on the sun's energy to power the electrolysis process, making it a clean and sustainable option.

Wind Hydrogen

Similar to solar hydrogen, wind hydrogen is produced by using electricity generated from wind turbines to split water into hydrogen and oxygen through electrolysis. It harnesses wind power for green hydrogen production.

Hydropower or Hydroelectric Hydrogen

Hydropower facilities utilize the energy of flowing water to generate electricity, which can be used for hydrogen production through electrolysis. This method is particularly common in regions with abundant hydropower resources.

Biomass Hydrogen

Biomass hydrogen is produced by using renewable biomass feedstocks, such as agricultural waste or organic matter, in a gasification or reforming process. This method combines renewable resources with hydrogen production.

Geothermal Hydrogen

Geothermal energy, harnessed from the Earth's internal heat, can be used to generate electricity for green hydrogen production. It's a sustainable and continuous energy source.

Tidal and Wave Hydrogen

Tidal and wave energy systems capture the kinetic energy of tides and waves to produce electricity, which can then be used for electrolytic hydrogen production. This method is still in the experimental phase in some regions.

Each of these types of green hydrogen production relies on renewable energy sources or low-carbon electricity to power the electrolysis process, ensuring that the hydrogen produced has a minimal carbon footprint. The choice of production method often depends on the availability of renewable resources in a particular region and the environmental goals of the hydrogen project.

Green Hydrogen

Standard Measurements of Green Hydrogen

Green hydrogen is typically measured using standard units for gases and energy. 

The key measurements for green hydrogen include:

1. Production Rate: Green hydrogen production is measured in kilograms (kg) or metric tons (MT) per hour, day, or year, depending on the scale of production.

2. Purity: The purity of green hydrogen is typically expressed as a percentage. "High-purity" hydrogen is often defined as 99.9% pure or higher.

3. Energy Content: Hydrogen has an energy content that can be measured in different units, such as megajoules (MJ) or gigajoules (GJ) per kilogram or cubic meter.

4. Pressure: Hydrogen can be stored and transported at various pressures, typically measured in bar or pascals (Pa).

5. Flow Rate: When transporting hydrogen, the flow rate is measured in standard cubic meters per hour (SCMH) or other volume-based units.

6. Storage Capacity: The storage capacity of hydrogen can be measured in cubic meters (m³) or metric tons, depending on whether it's stored as a gas or liquid.

7. Efficiency: The efficiency of green hydrogen production processes can be expressed as a percentage, indicating the portion of electrical or thermal energy input converted into hydrogen.

8. Cost: The cost of green hydrogen is often measured in terms of dollars per kilogram or another appropriate currency per unit of measurement.

These measurements are essential for assessing the production, storage, transportation, and economic aspects of green hydrogen, which plays a crucial role in the transition to a more sustainable energy system.

Green Hydrogen

Main Usability of Green Hydrogen

Green hydrogen has various potential use cases across different sectors due to its eco-friendly and versatile nature. 

Its main usability includes:

Clean Energy Source

Green hydrogen can be used as a clean and sustainable energy source. It can replace fossil fuels in various applications, such as electricity generation, heating, and industrial processes, to reduce carbon emissions.

Fuel for Transportation 

Green hydrogen can be used as a fuel for a wide range of transportation modes, including hydrogen fuel cell vehicles (cars, buses, trucks), trains, and potentially even aviation. It provides long-range and fast refueling capabilities with zero tailpipe emissions.

Energy Storage

Hydrogen serves as a means of energy storage, especially for renewable energy sources like wind and solar power. Excess energy generated during periods of high production can be used to produce hydrogen, which can then be converted back into electricity when needed.

Industrial Processes

Hydrogen is a crucial feedstock in various industrial processes, including the production of ammonia, methanol, and steel. Green hydrogen can replace conventional hydrogen production methods, which often rely on natural gas.

Power Generation

Hydrogen can be used in gas turbines or hydrogen fuel cells to generate electricity. This is particularly useful in areas where grid stability and renewable integration are challenging.

Heating and Cooling

Green hydrogen can be used for residential and industrial heating and cooling applications, providing a zero-emission alternative to natural gas.

Chemical Industry

Hydrogen is essential for various chemical reactions and processes, making it a valuable resource in the chemical industry. Green hydrogen can reduce the carbon footprint of chemical production.

Backup Power

Hydrogen fuel cells can be used for backup power systems in critical facilities like hospitals and data centers, ensuring continuous operation during power outages.

Hydrogen Refueling Stations

The establishment of hydrogen refueling infrastructure enables the deployment of hydrogen-powered vehicles, supporting sustainable transportation options.

Remote Power Generation

In remote or off-grid locations, green hydrogen can provide a reliable and sustainable source of power, especially when combined with renewable energy sources.

The versatility of green hydrogen makes it a crucial component of efforts to decarbonize various sectors of the economy and reduce greenhouse gas emissions. Its usability extends across energy production, transportation, industry, and more, contributing to a more sustainable and environmentally friendly future.

Green Hydrogen

Country With Highest Green Hydrogen Production

Several countries were actively investing in green hydrogen production, and it's possible that the landscape has evolved since then. 

However, as of that time, countries with notable green hydrogen production initiatives included:

1. Germany: Germany had ambitious plans to become a leader in green hydrogen production, with various projects and investments in place.

2. Australia: Australia, with its vast renewable energy potential, was also actively pursuing green hydrogen projects, particularly in regions with abundant solar and wind resources.

3. Norway: Norway was investing in green hydrogen production, capitalizing on its extensive hydropower resources.

4. Japan: Japan had a strong interest in green hydrogen due to its energy security concerns and environmental goals.

5. South Korea: South Korea was another Asian country making significant investments in green hydrogen to reduce carbon emissions.

6. Saudi Arabia: Saudi Arabia was exploring green hydrogen as a way to diversify its economy and reduce its dependence on fossil fuels.

The landscape of green hydrogen production can change rapidly due to evolving energy policies, technological advancements, and market dynamics. It's advisable to check the latest data and news to identify the current leader in green hydrogen production as of 2023 or beyond.

Green Hydrogen

Largest Green Hydrogen Production Company

There were several prominent companies involved in green hydrogen production, and the landscape may have evolved since then. 

At that time, some of the largest and well-known companies engaged in green hydrogen production and related technologies included:

Siemens Energy

Siemens Energy was actively involved in green hydrogen projects, including electrolysis technology and solutions for hydrogen production.

Air Products and Chemicals, Inc.

Air Products was a significant player in the hydrogen market, including green hydrogen production through renewable energy sources.


Nel ASA, a Norwegian company, specialized in hydrogen production solutions, including electrolyzers for green hydrogen production.

Plug Power

Plug Power, based in the United States, focused on hydrogen fuel cell systems and electrolyzers for green hydrogen production.

Hydrogenics (Now part of Cummins Inc.)

Hydrogenics, a subsidiary of Cummins Inc., offered electrolysis-based hydrogen production solutions.

McPhy Energy

McPhy Energy, a French company, developed electrolyzers and hydrogen storage solutions for green hydrogen production.

Ballard Power Systems

While primarily known for fuel cells, Ballard Power Systems also had an interest in hydrogen production technologies.

The landscape of the green hydrogen industry is dynamic and may have changed significantly since my last update. It's advisable to check the latest information and market developments to identify the largest green hydrogen production companies as of 2023 or beyond.

Green Hydrogen

The Adoption of Green Hydrogen in Aviation Industry

Several aviation companies and organizations were exploring the use of green hydrogen in their efforts to develop more sustainable aviation solutions. 

Some of the aviation companies and projects that were actively involved in researching and developing hydrogen-powered aircraft or exploring the use of green hydrogen in aviation included:

1. ZeroAvia: ZeroAvia, a U.S. and UK-based company, was working on hydrogen-electric powertrains for regional aircraft, with a focus on decarbonizing short-haul flights.

2. HyPoint: HyPoint was developing hydrogen fuel cell systems for aviation applications, aiming to provide power solutions for a range of aircraft types.

3. H2FLY: The H2FLY project in Germany was focused on developing a hydrogen fuel cell-powered aircraft for various aviation applications, including air taxis.

4. European Clean Hydrogen Aviation (ECH2A): ECH2A was a European consortium of aviation companies and research institutions working on the development of hydrogen-powered aircraft and infrastructure.

5. Airbus: Airbus, a major aerospace manufacturer, has expressed interest in exploring hydrogen as a potential energy source for future aircraft and has announced concepts for hydrogen-powered aircraft.

The progress and adoption of hydrogen-powered aviation may vary by region and company. To find the most up-to-date information on aviation companies using green hydrogen or developing hydrogen-powered aircraft, I recommend checking recent news and updates from the aviation industry and specific companies involved in these projects.

Green Hydrogen

Pros and Cons the Usability of Green Hydrogen in Operational Sector

The usability of green hydrogen in various operational sectors comes with both advantages and challenges. Here are the pros and cons:


1. Environmentally Friendly: Green hydrogen is produced using renewable energy sources, such as wind, solar, or hydropower, making it a clean and eco-friendly energy carrier. It produces no greenhouse gas emissions during combustion or use.

2. Energy Storage: Hydrogen can store excess energy from intermittent renewable sources, like wind and solar, for use when needed. This helps with grid stability and energy supply during peak demand.

3. Versatility: Hydrogen has a wide range of applications, including electricity generation, transportation (fuel cell vehicles), industrial processes, and heating, making it a versatile energy carrier.

4. Reduced Carbon Footprint: In sectors where direct electrification is challenging, green hydrogen can be a valuable alternative to reduce carbon emissions, such as in heavy industry and long-haul transportation.

5. Decentralization: Hydrogen production can be decentralized, allowing for local production and reducing the need for long-distance energy transmission.

6. Hydrogen Economy: A robust hydrogen economy can create jobs and economic opportunities, particularly in regions with abundant renewable energy resources.


1. Energy Intensive Production: Producing green hydrogen through electrolysis is energy-intensive, and achieving high energy efficiency can be challenging. This can limit the overall environmental benefits if the electricity source is not renewable.

2. Infrastructure Costs: Building the infrastructure for hydrogen production, storage, and transportation can be expensive. This includes electrolysis facilities, pipelines, and refueling stations.

3. Storage and Transportation Challenges: Hydrogen has low energy density by volume, which requires high-pressure or cryogenic storage. Additionally, hydrogen can be challenging to transport over long distances.

4. Safety Concerns: Hydrogen is flammable and requires careful handling and storage. Safety measures and regulations are essential for its use and transportation.

5. Technological Hurdles: There are technical challenges in terms of improving the efficiency of hydrogen production methods, developing cost-effective hydrogen storage solutions, and addressing materials issues for hydrogen infrastructure.

6. Competition with Electrification: In some applications, direct electrification may be a more efficient and cost-effective way to reduce carbon emissions, which can compete with hydrogen adoption.

7. Limited Production Capacity: The production capacity of green hydrogen was limited compared to global energy demands, which may hinder its widespread adoption.

Green hydrogen holds great potential for decarbonizing various sectors of the economy, but its adoption and scalability depend on overcoming technological, economic, and infrastructure challenges. It's important to consider these pros and cons in the context of specific use cases and regional factors when evaluating the usability of green hydrogen in operational sectors.

Green Hydrogen

Green Hydrogen: International Collaboration

International collaboration is a crucial aspect of advancing the development, production, and adoption of green hydrogen on a global scale. Several initiatives and partnerships have been formed to promote cooperation among countries, organizations, and stakeholders in the field of green hydrogen. 

Here are some notable examples of international collaboration related to green hydrogen:

Green Hydrogen Catapult

The Green Hydrogen Catapult is a global initiative led by major energy and industrial companies, including ACWA Power, CWP Renewables, Envision, Iberdrola, ├śrsted, and Yara. Its goal is to scale up green hydrogen production to 1,000 gigawatts (GW) by 2030, which would make green hydrogen cost-competitive with fossil fuels in various applications.

Hydrogen Council

The Hydrogen Council is a global CEO-led initiative that brings together companies from various sectors to promote hydrogen as a key part of the energy transition. It focuses on advancing hydrogen technology and supporting policy and investment.

Mission Innovation

Mission Innovation is a global initiative involving numerous countries committed to accelerating clean energy innovation. It includes a "Hydrogen Innovation Challenge" that aims to advance hydrogen production, distribution, and use.

European Clean Hydrogen Alliance

The European Clean Hydrogen Alliance is an initiative of the European Commission that brings together stakeholders from across the hydrogen value chain to accelerate the deployment of clean hydrogen in Europe.

Asia-Pacific Hydrogen Association

This association fosters cooperation among countries in the Asia-Pacific region to develop hydrogen as a clean energy carrier. It aims to promote research, development, and deployment of hydrogen technologies.

U.S.-Japan Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Partnership

The U.S. and Japan have a bilateral partnership focused on advancing hydrogen and fuel cell technologies. They collaborate on research, development, and commercialization efforts.

African Hydrogen Partnership

African countries are exploring the potential of green hydrogen to address energy challenges on the continent. The African Hydrogen Partnership aims to coordinate and support these efforts.

International Renewable Energy Agency (IRENA)

IRENA promotes renewable energy sources, including green hydrogen, and provides a platform for international collaboration and knowledge sharing on hydrogen-related projects and policies.

Hydrogen Energy Ministerial Meetings

Various countries have organized ministerial meetings and forums focused on hydrogen to share insights, collaborate on research, and establish global hydrogen strategies.

These international collaborations are essential for pooling resources, knowledge, and expertise to accelerate the development and deployment of green hydrogen technologies. They also facilitate the establishment of common standards, best practices, and policy frameworks to ensure the sustainable growth of the hydrogen economy worldwide.

Green Hydrogen

Criteria for Green Hydrogen Sustainability Index assessment

There was no universally recognized sustainability index specifically dedicated to green hydrogen. 

However, sustainability assessments for hydrogen projects and technologies typically rely on a range of indicators and criteria that assess the environmental, social, and economic aspects of the hydrogen production and use. 

These indicators can include:

1. Carbon Emissions: Assessing the carbon footprint of hydrogen production is a key aspect of sustainability. This involves measuring the amount of greenhouse gas emissions associated with hydrogen production, transportation, and use, with the aim of minimizing emissions.

2. Energy Source: The source of energy used for hydrogen production is crucial. Green hydrogen, as the name suggests, should be produced using renewable energy sources like wind, solar, or hydropower to be considered sustainable.

3. Resource Efficiency: Sustainable hydrogen production should consider resource efficiency, including the efficient use of water and raw materials.

4. Economic Viability: The economic sustainability of hydrogen projects is important for their long-term success. This includes factors like cost-competitiveness with fossil fuels and the creation of economic opportunities and jobs.

5. Social Impact: The social aspects of hydrogen projects, such as job creation, community engagement, and local benefits, are considered in sustainability assessments.

6. Safety and Regulations: Compliance with safety standards and regulatory requirements is essential to ensure the safe handling, storage, and transportation of hydrogen.

7. Life Cycle Assessment (LCA): LCAs analyze the environmental impacts of hydrogen production and use throughout its entire life cycle, from production to end-of-life disposal.

8. Water Usage: The water footprint of hydrogen production is evaluated to ensure sustainable water use, especially in regions with water scarcity.

9. Local Environmental Impact: Assessments consider the potential impact on local ecosystems, air quality, and noise levels.

10. Hydrogen Purity: The purity of hydrogen produced can impact its usability in various applications, and sustainability assessments consider the intended use.

Sustainability criteria can vary by region and organization. As green hydrogen technology continues to develop and mature, it's possible that standardized sustainability indices or certifications specific to green hydrogen may emerge to provide clear guidelines and transparency regarding the sustainability of hydrogen production and use.

Green Hydrogen

Future of Global Green Hydrogen Technology

The future of green hydrogen technology holds significant promise and is expected to play a crucial role in the global transition to a more sustainable and decarbonized energy system. 

Here are key aspects of the future global outlook for green hydrogen technology:

1. Rapid Growth: Green hydrogen production is expected to grow exponentially in the coming years. Governments, industries, and investors are increasingly recognizing its potential to address climate change and reduce carbon emissions.

2. Cost Reduction: As technology advances and economies of scale are realized, the cost of green hydrogen production is anticipated to decrease, making it more competitive with conventional fuels in various applications.

3. Scaling Up Electrolysis: The electrolysis process, which is used to produce green hydrogen, is expected to see significant advancements, resulting in more efficient and cost-effective electrolyzers. High-temperature and high-pressure electrolysis methods may gain traction.

4. Renewable Energy Integration: Green hydrogen will become a key means of storing and utilizing excess renewable energy generated from sources like wind and solar. This will enhance grid stability and reliability.

5. Energy Transition Catalyst: Green hydrogen is seen as a versatile energy carrier that can decarbonize sectors that are challenging to electrify directly, such as heavy industry, long-haul transportation, and certain industrial processes.

6. Hydrogen Infrastructure: Infrastructure development for hydrogen production, storage, transportation, and distribution will expand to support the growing hydrogen economy. This includes pipelines, refueling stations, and storage facilities.

7. Global Collaboration: International collaboration will be vital in advancing green hydrogen technology. Initiatives like the Green Hydrogen Catapult and regional partnerships will accelerate progress.

8. Policy Support: Governments worldwide are expected to implement supportive policies, including incentives, subsidies, and carbon pricing mechanisms, to promote green hydrogen production and adoption.

9. Market Diversification: Green hydrogen applications will diversify, including its use in power generation, heating, cooling, and as a feedstock for industries like chemicals and steel production.

10. Technological Innovation: Ongoing research and development will drive innovation in hydrogen production, storage, and utilization technologies, further enhancing the efficiency and sustainability of green hydrogen.

11. Sustainability Standards: Standardization and certification of green hydrogen production processes will become more important to ensure environmental and social sustainability.

12. Global Energy Trade:*l Hydrogen may become an important global commodity, with countries exporting excess green hydrogen to regions with high demand, similar to the way natural gas is traded today.

While the future of green hydrogen technology is promising, challenges remain, including addressing the energy intensity of production, infrastructure investments, and safety considerations. However, with continued commitment to sustainability and global collaboration, green hydrogen is poised to be a central player in the world's transition to cleaner and more sustainable energy systems.

Green Hydrogen

Conclusion for Global Outlook of Green Hydrogen 

The global outlook for green hydrogen technology is undeniably bright, driven by a compelling need to combat climate change and transition towards cleaner energy sources. 

Green hydrogen, produced from renewable energy, is emerging as a versatile and eco-friendly energy carrier with applications spanning industries, transportation, and power generation. With an anticipated rapid growth in production capacity and a focus on cost reduction, green hydrogen is poised to play a pivotal role in decarbonizing sectors that have proven resistant to electrification.

Furthermore, international collaboration and supportive policies are fostering a fertile environment for green hydrogen's evolution, while technological innovation continues to enhance its efficiency and sustainability. 

As the world continues to prioritize sustainability and embraces the potential of green hydrogen, it represents a beacon of hope in our quest for a more sustainable and carbon-neutral future, offering not only a cleaner energy source but also a catalyst for economic growth and global cooperation in addressing the pressing challenges of our time.

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